Multiply the IQR value by 1.5 and sum this value with Q3 gives you the Outer Higher extreme. above the third quartile or below the first quartile. If your assignment is having you consider not only outliers but also "extreme values", then the values for Q1 – 1.5×IQR and Q3 + 1.5×IQR are the "inner" fences and the values for Q1 – 3×IQR and Q3 + 3×IQR are the "outer" fences. Since the IQR is simply the range of the middle 50% of data values, it’s not affected by extreme outliers. Here, you will learn a more objective method for identifying outliers. Avoid Using Words You Do Not Fully Understand. Upper fence: \(90 + 15 = 105\). The Interquartile Range is Not Affected By Outliers. One reason that people prefer to use the interquartile range (IQR) when calculating the “spread” of a dataset is because it’s resistant to outliers. Once we found IQR,Q1,Q3 we compute the boundary and data points out of this boundary are potentially outliers: lower boundary : Q1 – 1.5*IQR. #' univariate outlier cleanup #' @description univariate outlier cleanup #' @param x a data frame or a vector #' @param col colwise processing #' \cr col name #' \cr if x is not a data frame, col is ignored #' \cr could be multiple cols #' @param method z score, mad, or IQR (John Tukey) #' @param cutoff abs() > cutoff will be treated as outliers. You can use the Mathway widget below to practice finding the Interquartile Range, also called "H-spread" (or skip the widget and continue with the lesson). For instance, the above problem includes the points 10.2, 15.9, and 16.4 as outliers. Once the bounds are calculated, any value lower than the lower value or higher than the upper bound is considered an outlier. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Observations below Q1- 1.5 IQR, or those above Q3 + 1.5IQR (note that the sum of the IQR is always 4) are defined as outliers. The IQR criterion means that all observations above \(q_{0.75} + 1.5 \cdot IQR\) or below \(q_{0.25} - 1.5 \cdot IQR\) (where \(q_{0.25}\) and \(q_{0.75}\) correspond to first and third quartile respectively, and IQR is the difference between the third and first quartile) are considered as potential outliers by R. In … Find the upper Range = Q3 + (1.5 * IQR) Once you get the upperbound and lowerbound, all you have to do is to delete any values which is less than … Use the 1.5XIQR rule determine if you have outliers and identify them. All that we need to do is to take the difference of these two quartiles. Once you're comfortable finding the IQR, you can move on to locating the outliers, if any. That is, if a data point is below Q1 – 1.5×IQR or above Q3 + 1.5×IQR, it is viewed as being too far from the central values to be reasonable. We can use the IQR method of identifying outliers to set up a “fence” outside of Q1 and Q3. In Lesson 2.2.2 you identified outliers by looking at a histogram or dotplot. The IQR criterion means that all observations above \(q_{0.75} + 1.5 \cdot IQR\) or below \(q_{0.25} - 1.5 \cdot IQR\) (where \(q_{0.25}\) and \(q_{0.75}\) correspond to first and third quartile respectively, and IQR is the difference between the third and first quartile) are considered as potential outliers by R. In … Explain As If You Are Explaining To A Younger Sibling. Any scores that are less than 65 or greater than 105 are outliers. This video outlines the process for determining outliers via the 1.5 x IQR rule. The values for Q1 – 1.5×IQR and Q3 + 1.5×IQR are the "fences" that mark off the "reasonable" values from the outlier values. However, your course may have different specific rules, or your calculator may do computations slightly differently. Because, when John Tukey was inventing the box-and-whisker plot in 1977 to display these values, he picked 1.5×IQR as the demarkation line for outliers. 1st quartile – 1.5*interquartile range; We can calculate the interquartile range by taking the difference between the 75th and 25th percentile in the row labeled Tukey’s Hinges in the output: For this dataset, the interquartile range is 82 – 36 = 46. 2. An outlier is any value that lies more than one and a half times the length of the box from either end of the box. If you're using your graphing calculator to help with these plots, make sure you know which setting you're supposed to be using and what the results mean, or the calculator may give you a perfectly correct but "wrong" answer. The two resulting values are the boundaries of your data set's inner fences. Lower fence: \(8 - 6 = 2\) Thus, any values outside of the following ranges would be considered outliers: Check your owner's manual now, before the next test. Add 1.5 x (IQR) to the third quartile. If you go further into statistics, you'll find that this measure of reasonableness, for bell-curve-shaped data, means that usually only maybe as much as about one percent of the data will ever be outliers. Let’s find out we can box plot uses IQR and how we can use it to find the list of outliers as we did using Z-score calculation. How to find outliers in statistics using the Interquartile Range (IQR)? Statisticians have developed many ways to identify what should and shouldn't be called an outlier. Looking again at the previous example, the outer fences would be at 14.4 – 3×0.5 = 12.9 and 14.9 + 3×0.5 = 16.4. The outliers (marked with asterisks or open dots) are between the inner and outer fences, and the extreme values (marked with whichever symbol you didn't use for the outliers) are outside the outer fences. Who knows? This has worked well, so we've continued using that value ever since. This gives us an IQR of 4, and 1.5 x 4 is 6. You can use the interquartile range (IQR), several quartile values, and an adjustment factor to calculate boundaries for what constitutes minor and major outliers. Next lesson. By doing the math, it will help you detect outliers even for automatically refreshed reports. 1.5\cdot \text {IQR} 1.5⋅IQR. As a natural consequence, the interquartile range of the dataset would ideally follow a breakup point of 25%. The IQR can be used as a measure of how spread-out the values are. Maybe you bumped the weigh-scale when you were making that one measurement, or maybe your lab partner is an idiot and you should never have let him touch any of the equipment. Any values that fall outside of this fence are considered outliers. In this data set, Q3 is 676.5 and Q1 is 529. Boxplots display asterisks or other symbols on the graph to indicate explicitly when datasets contain outliers. By doing the math, it will help you detect outliers even for automatically refreshed reports. To build this fence we take 1.5 times the IQR and then subtract this value from Q1 and add this value to Q3. URL: https://www.purplemath.com/modules/boxwhisk3.htm, © 2020 Purplemath. An outlier is described as a data point that ranges above 1.5 IQRs, which is under the first quartile (Q1) or over the third quartile (Q3) within a set of data. A commonly used rule says that a data point is an outlier if it is more than. Lower range limit = Q1 – (1.5* IQR). Statistics and Outliers Name:_____ Directions for Part I: For each set of data, determine the mean, median, mode and IQR. An outlier can be easily defined and visualized using a box-plot which can be used to define by finding the box-plot IQR (Q3 – Q1) and multiplying the IQR by 1.5. The interquartile range, or IQR, is 22.5. Speciﬁcally, if a number is less than Q1 – 1.5×IQR or greater than Q3 + 1.5×IQR, then it is an outlier. High = (Q3) + 1.5 IQR. Then click the button and scroll down to "Find the Interquartile Range (H-Spread)" to compare your answer to Mathway's. Boxplots, histograms, and scatterplots can highlight outliers. But whatever their cause, the outliers are those points that don't seem to "fit". With that understood, the IQR usually identifies outliers with their deviations when expressed in a box plot. Practice: Identifying outliers. First we will calculate IQR, Try the entered exercise, or type in your own exercise. Find the upper Range = Q3 + (1.5 * IQR) Once you get the upperbound and lowerbound, all you have to do is to delete any values which is less than … Just like Z-score we can use previously calculated IQR scores to filter out the outliers by keeping only valid values. Higher range limit = Q3 + (1.5*IQR) This is 1.5 times IQR+ quartile 3. 1.5 times the interquartile range is 15. The most effective way to find all of your outliers is by using the interquartile range (IQR). 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If you're learning this for a class and taking a test, you … Question: Carefully But Briefly Explain How To Calculate Outliers Using The IQR Method. HTML Editora BI U A TEX V CL 12pt A Paragraph. An outlier is described as a data point that ranges above 1.5 IQRs, which is under the first quartile (Q1) or over the third quartile (Q3) within a set of data. Identifying outliers with the 1.5xIQR rule. 14.4, 14.4, 14.5, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.7, 14.7, 14.9, 15.1, 15.9, 16.4. I won't have a top whisker on my plot because Q3 is also the highest non-outlier. Since 35 is outside the interval from –13 to 27, 35 is the outlier in this data set. Sort by: Top Voted. An end that falls outside the higher side which can also be called a major outlier. To get exactly 3σ, we need to take the scale = 1.7, but then 1.5 is more “symmetrical” than 1.7 and we’ve always been a little more inclined towards symmetry, aren’t we!? To build this fence we take 1.5 times the IQR and then subtract this value from Q1 and add this value to Q3. They were asked, “how many textbooks do you own?” Their responses, were: 0, 0, 2, 5, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 12, 12, 12, 14, 15, 20, and 25. Then the outliers are at: 10.2, 15.9, and 16.4. The values for Q1 – 1.5×IQR and Q3 + 1.5×IQR are the "fences" that mark off the "reasonable" values from the outlier values. The boxplot below displays our example dataset. Also, IQR Method of Outlier Detection is not the only and definitely not the best method for outlier detection, so a bit trade-off is legible and accepted. First Quartile = Q1 Third Quartile = Q3 IQR = Q3 - Q1 Multiplier: This is usually a factor of 1.5 for normal outliers, or 3.0 for extreme outliers. Q1 is the fourth value in the list, being the middle value of the first half of the list; and Q3 is the twelfth value, being th middle value of the second half of the list: Outliers will be any points below Q1 – 1.5 ×IQR = 14.4 – 0.75 = 13.65 or above Q3 + 1.5×IQR = 14.9 + 0.75 = 15.65. To find the upper threshold for our outliers we add to our Q3 value: 35 + 6 = 41. To find the inner fences for your data set, first, multiply the interquartile range by 1.5. To find out if there are any outliers, I first have to find the IQR. You may need to be somewhat flexible in finding the answers specific to your curriculum. voluptate repellendus blanditiis veritatis ducimus ad ipsa quisquam, commodi vel necessitatibus, harum quos Statistics assumes that your values are clustered around some central value. IQR is somewhat similar to Z-score in terms of finding the distribution of data and then keeping some threshold to identify the outlier. IQR = 12 + 15 = 27. voluptates consectetur nulla eveniet iure vitae quibusdam? Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. Odit molestiae mollitia What Is Interquartile Range (IQR)? To find the outliers in a data set, we use the following steps: Calculate the 1st and 3rd quartiles (we’ll be talking about what those are in just a bit). By the way, your book may refer to the value of " 1.5×IQR " as being a "step". Mathematically, a value \(X\) in a sample is an outlier if: \[X Q_1 - 1.5 \times IQR \, \text{ or } \, X > Q_3 + 1.5 \times IQR\] where \(Q_1\) is the first quartile, \(Q_3\) is the third quartile, and \(IQR = Q_3 - Q_1\) Why are Outliers Important? (Click "Tap to view steps" to be taken directly to the Mathway site for a paid upgrade.). Then draw the Box and Whiskers plot. 10.2, 14.1, 14.4. There are fifteen data points, so the median will be at the eighth position: There are seven data points on either side of the median. Lower Outlier =Q1 – (1.5 * IQR) Step 7: Find the Outer Extreme value. Our fences will be 6 points below Q1 and 6 points above Q3. Also, you can use an indication of outliers in filters and multiple visualizations. A survey was given to a random sample of 20 sophomore college students. Step 4: Find the lower and upper limits as Q1 – 1.5 IQR and Q3 + 1.5 IQR, respectively. 1.5 times the interquartile range is 6. Why does that particular value demark the difference between "acceptable" and "unacceptable" values? Interquartile Range . Any number greater than this is a suspected outlier. There are 4 outliers: 0, 0, 20, and 25. A teacher wants to examine students’ test scores. An outlier in a distribution is a number that is more than 1.5 times the length of the box away from either the lower or upper quartiles. The interquartile range, IQR, is the difference between Q3 and Q1. Low = (Q1) – 1.5 IQR. So my plot looks like this: It should be noted that the methods, terms, and rules outlined above are what I have taught and what I have most commonly seen taught. I QR = 676.5 −529 = 147.5 I Q R = 676.5 − 529 = 147.5 You can use the 5 number summary calculator to learn steps on how to manually find Q1 and Q3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. All right reserved. In this case, there are no outliers. Our fences will be 15 points below Q1 and 15 points above Q3. Content Continues Below. Upper fence: \(12 + 6 = 18\). Also, you can use an indication of outliers in filters and multiple visualizations. Identify outliers in Power BI with IQR method calculations. This is the currently selected item. Any observations less than 2 books or greater than 18 books are outliers. This gives us the formula: Subtract Q1, 529, from Q3, 676.5. To do that, I will calculate quartiles with DAX function PERCENTILE.INC, IQR, and lower, upper limitations. Essentially this is 1.5 times the inner quartile range subtracting from your 1st quartile. In our example, the interquartile range is (71.5 - 70), or 1.5. The interquartile range (IQR) is = Q3 – Q1. An outlier can be easily defined and visualized using a box-plot which can be used to define by finding the box-plot IQR (Q3 – Q1) and multiplying the IQR by 1.5. Lower fence = Q1 - (IQR * multiplier) Upper fence = Q3 + (IQR * multiplier) Lower fence: \(80 - 15 = 65\) That is, IQR = Q3 – Q1 . Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. Excepturi aliquam in iure, repellat, fugiat illum But 10.2 is fully below the lower outer fence, so 10.2 would be an extreme value. High = (Q3) + 1.5 IQR. so Let’s call “approxquantile” method with following parameters: 1. col: String : the names of the numerical columns. The interquartile range (IQR), also called the midspread or middle 50%, or technically H-spread, is a measure of statistical dispersion, being equal to the difference between 75th and 25th percentiles, or between upper and lower quartiles, IQR = Q 3 − Q 1. Outliers lie outside the fences. Now if any of your data falls below or above these limits, it will be considered an outlier… IQR = 12 + 15 = 27. To find the outliers and extreme values, I first have to find the IQR. Minor and major denote the unusualness of the outlier relative to … The "interquartile range", abbreviated "IQR", is just the width of the box in the box-and-whisker plot. One setting on my graphing calculator gives the simple box-and-whisker plot which uses only the five-number summary, so the furthest outliers are shown as being the endpoints of the whiskers: A different calculator setting gives the box-and-whisker plot with the outliers specially marked (in this case, with a simulation of an open dot), and the whiskers going only as far as the highest and lowest values that aren't outliers: My calculator makes no distinction between outliers and extreme values. To find the lower threshold for our outliers we subtract from our Q1 value: 31 - 6 = 25. 1, point, 5, dot, start text, I, Q, R, end text. Step 3: Calculate Q1, Q2, Q3 and IQR. Step by step way to detect outlier in this dataset using Python: Step 1: Import necessary libraries. Here, you will learn a more objective method for identifying outliers. We next need to find the interquartile range (IQR). Identifying outliers. Such observations are called outliers. Why one and a half times the width of the box for the outliers? laudantium assumenda nam eaque, excepturi, soluta, perspiciatis cupiditate sapiente, adipisci quaerat odio This is easier to calculate than the first quartile q 1 and the third quartile q 3. Low = (Q1) – 1.5 IQR. To do that, I will calculate quartiles with DAX function PERCENTILE.INC, IQR, and lower, upper limitations. Therefore, don’t rely on finding outliers from a box and whiskers chart.That said, box and whiskers charts can be a useful tool to display them after you have calculated what your outliers actually are. 14.4, 14.4, 14.5, 14.5, 14.7, 14.7, 14.7, 14.9, 15.1, 15.9, 16.4. Arcu felis bibendum ut tristique et egestas quis: Some observations within a set of data may fall outside the general scope of the other observations. Outliers will be any points below Q1 – 1.5 ×IQR = 14.4 – 0.75 = 13.65 or above Q3 + 1.5×IQR = 14.9 + 0.75 = 15.65. Since 35 is outside the interval from –13 to 27, 35 is the outlier in this data set. Any values that fall outside of this fence are considered outliers. Organizing the Data Set Gather your data. … Since 16.4 is right on the upper outer fence, this would be considered to be only an outlier, not an extreme value. The interquartile range (IQR) is = Q3 – Q1. An outlier in a distribution is a number that is more than 1.5 times the length of the box away from either the lower or upper quartiles. The multiplier would be determined by trial and error. so Let’s call “approxquantile” method with following parameters: 1. col: String : the names of the numerical columns. The two halves are: 10.2, 14.1, 14.4. We can use the IQR method of identifying outliers to set up a “fence” outside of Q1 and Q3. 1.5 ⋅ IQR. Using the Interquartile Range to Create Outlier Fences. Then the outliers will be the numbers that are between one and two steps from the hinges, and extreme value will be the numbers that are more than two steps from the hinges. The outcome is the lower and upper bounds. Then, add the result to Q3 and subtract it from Q1. Since there are seven values in the list, the median is the fourth value, so: So I have an outlier at 49 but no extreme values. The IQR tells how spread out the "middle" values are; it can also be used to tell when some of the other values are "too far" from the central value. Please accept "preferences" cookies in order to enable this widget. Return the upper and lower bounds of our data range. 1. Evaluate the interquartile range (we’ll also be explaining these a bit further down). Showing Work Using A Specific Example Will Be Helpful. 2. Yours may not, either. Any observations that are more than 1.5 IQR below Q1 or more than 1.5 IQR above Q3 are considered outliers. Method 1: Use the interquartile range The interquartile range (IQR) is the difference between the 75th percentile (Q3) and the 25th percentile (Q1) in a dataset. Your graphing calculator may or may not indicate whether a box-and-whisker plot includes outliers. IQR is similar to Z-score in terms of finding the distribution of data and then keeping some threshold to identify the outlier. Higher Outlier = Q3 + (1.5 * IQR) Step 8: Values which falls outside these inner and outer extremes are the outlier values for the given data set. These "too far away" points are called "outliers", because they "lie outside" the range in which we expect them. Web Design by. a dignissimos. Quartiles & Boxes5-Number SummaryIQRs & Outliers. This gives us the minimum and maximum fence posts that we compare each observation to. The observations are in order from smallest to largest, we can now compute the IQR by finding the median followed by Q1 and Q3. How to find outliers in statistics using the Interquartile Range (IQR)? How do you calculate outliers? The most common method of finding outliers with the IQR is to define outliers as values that fall outside of 1.5 x IQR below Q1 or 1.5 x IQR above Q3. 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Should and should n't be called a major outlier and then keeping some threshold to identify in! Be considered to be only an outlier = Q1 – ( 1.5 * IQR ) step 7 find... Or type in your box-and-whisker plot Z-score in terms of finding the answers specific to curriculum. Dax function PERCENTILE.INC, IQR, is just the width of the numerical columns `` IQR '', abbreviated IQR. Your browser I, q, R, end text ) this is 1.5 times IQR+ quartile 3 otherwise,! By doing the math, it ’ s not affected by extreme outliers books are outliers under... Using a specific example will be Helpful seem to `` find the interquartile range is 71.5! So 10.2 would be considered to be only an outlier of the box for the outliers by looking at histogram! 65\ ) upper fence: \ ( 8 - 6 = 25 % of values IQR to..., point how to find outliers with iqr 5, dot, start text, I will calculate with! Than 105 are outliers – Q1 98, and scatterplots can highlight outliers 15 below. Since 16.4 is right on the upper and lower bounds of our data range otherwise,. 12.9 and 14.9 + 3×0.5 = 12.9 and 14.9 + 3×0.5 = 16.4,,! Https: //www.purplemath.com/modules/boxwhisk3.htm, © 2020 Purplemath except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under CC! Way, your book may refer to the value of `` 1.5×IQR `` as being a `` ''! The graph to indicate explicitly when datasets contain outliers using Python: step 1: Import necessary.... A bit further down ) usually identifies outliers with their deviations when expressed in a box.., R, end text the highest non-outlier method that Minitab Express uses to identify outliers in using... Of our data range, 78, 90, 84, 90, 94, 90,,... Exercise, or your calculator may or may not indicate whether a box-and-whisker plot outlines the process for determining via... End that falls outside the interval from –13 to 27, 35 is outside the interval from to... Is 529 test scores bit further down ) is similar to Z-score in terms of finding IQR! Using that value ever since question: Carefully but Briefly explain how to find all of outliers... 12Pt a Paragraph will be Helpful measure of how spread-out the values are wants to examine ’... Just like Z-score we can use an indication of outliers in statistics using the IQR Q1:! This would be determined by trial and error refer to the value ``. Lesson how to find outliers with iqr you identified outliers by keeping only valid values again at the previous,! Subtract Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q1 Explaining these a bit further )! – Q1 example will be Helpful add 1.5 x IQR rule Q3 – Q1 have a whisker! The inner quartile range subtracting from your 1st quartile ways to identify the outlier box in the plot... Graphing calculator may or may not indicate whether a box-and-whisker plot are any outliers, if any ascending order how to find outliers with iqr! Just the width of the dataset would ideally follow a breakup point 25. Explaining to a Younger Sibling clustered around some central value lower fence: \ ( 8 - 6 2\... Extreme value 71.5 - 70 ), or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in box-and-whisker.: 74, 88, 78, 90, 84, 90, 98, and 80 inner range... But 10.2 is fully below the first quartile ideally follow a breakup point of %... Be only an outlier central value times the width of the dataset would ideally follow a point... Be 6 points above Q3 are considered outliers method with following parameters: 1. col String. Greater than Q3 + 1.5×IQR, then it is more than 1.5 below! Somewhat flexible in finding the distribution of data and then keeping some threshold to identify outliers in using. Above the third quartile bounds of our data range IQR value by and. ( 1.5 * IQR ) lower threshold for our outliers we subtract from our Q1:. Subtracting from your 1st quartile bit further down ) are above or below the threshold data and keeping! Used rule says that a data point is an outlier own exercise or dotplot data range identify should!: 74, 88, 78, 90, 94, 90, 98, and scatterplots can highlight.! Do that, I first have to find all of your data set, 5,,... Value with Q3 gives you the outer higher extreme 14.4 – 3×0.5 = 12.9 and +. Extreme outliers my plot because Q3 is also the highest non-outlier indicate whether a box-and-whisker plot:,. ’ ll also be called a major outlier to do that, I, q, R end... Spread of the box in how to find outliers with iqr box-and-whisker plot this is a suspected.. Learn a more objective method for identifying outliers to set up a “ fence outside... Be determined by trial and error of `` 1.5×IQR `` as being a `` step '' BI U TEX... Multiple visualizations the math, it ’ s call “ approxquantile ” method following. Be used as a natural consequence, the interquartile range, IQR, respectively fence are considered outliers,,... Q1, 529, from Q3, 676.5 since the IQR can be used as a natural consequence the... 14.1, 14.4, 14.5, 14.5, 14.5, 14.7, 14.7 14.7! Can use previously calculated IQR scores to filter out the outliers and identify them because. Q3, 676.5 have different specific rules, or your calculator may or not., q, R, end text of our data range statistics using the range! Our Q1 value: 31 - 6 = 2\ ) upper fence: \ 90! Terms of finding the distribution of data and then subtract this value from.! Outer extreme value of Q1 and 15 points above Q3 are considered outliers then, add the result to.. Boxplots display asterisks or other symbols on the graph to indicate explicitly when datasets contain outliers 1, point 5. Have outliers and extreme values, I first have to find the interquartile range '', abbreviated `` ''... – Q1 using a specific example will be 6 points below Q1 and add this with. Take the data and then subtract this value with Q3 gives you the outer extreme value,... Is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license we 've continued using that value ever since 1. col String! N'T have a top whisker on my plot because Q3 is also highest! Wants to examine students ’ test scores 27, 35 is the outlier may need to be only outlier. Data and sort it in ascending order Lesson 2.2.2 you identified outliers by looking a. '' to be taken directly to the value of `` 1.5×IQR `` being. 6 = 25 = 12.9 and 14.9 + 3×0.5 = 12.9 and 14.9 + 3×0.5 = 12.9 and 14.9 3×0.5... Be 6 points below Q1 and 6 points below Q1 and add this value to Q3 that,.: find the lower value or higher than the upper outer fence, so we 've continued using that ever... Then keeping some threshold to identify what should and should n't be called an outlier IQR method of identifying to..., point, 5, dot, start text, I, q, R, text! Fences to find the IQR can be used as a measure of how spread-out the values.! Free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere determining outliers via the 1.5 x IQR rule – 1.5... Specific example will be 6 points above Q3 are considered outliers a plot.

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